United Airlines Flight 175 hits the South Tower of the World Trade Center during the September 11 attacks of 2001 in New York City, an act of terrorism planned by Osama Bin Laden.

Terrorism, in its broadest sense, is the use of intentional violence and fear to achieve political or ideological aims. The term is used in this regard primarily to refer to intentional violence during peacetime or in the context of war against non-combatants (mostly civilians and neutral military personnel).[1] There are various different definitions of terrorism, with no universal agreement about it.[2][3]

The terms “terrorist” and “terrorism” originated during the French Revolution of the late 18th century[4] but became widely used internationally and gained worldwide attention in the 1970s during the Troubles in Northern Ireland, the Basque conflict and the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. The increased use of suicide attacks from the 1980s onwards was typified by the 2001 September 11 attacks in the United States. The Global Terrorism Database, maintained by the University of Maryland, College Park, has recorded more than 61,000 incidents of non-state terrorism, resulting in at least 140,000 deaths, between 2000 and 2014.[5]

Varied political organizations have been accused of using terrorism to achieve their objectives. These include left-wing and right-wing political organizations, nationalist groupsreligious groupsrevolutionaries, and ruling governments.[6]

Terrorism is a charged term. It is often used with the connotation of something that is “morally wrong”. Governments and non-state groups use the term to abuse or denounce opposing groups.[3][7][8][9][10] While legislation defining terrorism as a crime has been adopted in many states, the distinction between activism and terrorism remains a complex and debated matter.[11][12] There is no consensus as to whether terrorism should be regarded as a war crime.[11][13] State terrorism is that perpetrated by nation states, but is not considered such by the state conducting it, making legality a grey area.[14]

Etymology

Seal of the Jacobin Club

The term “terrorism” itself was originally used to describe the actions of the Jacobin Club during the “Reign of Terror” in the French Revolution. “Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible”, said Jacobin leader Maximilien Robespierre. In 1795, Edmund Burke denounced the Jacobins for letting “thousands of those hell-hounds called Terrorists … loose on the people” of France.[15] John Calvin‘s rule over Geneva in the 16th century has also been described as a reign of terror.[16][17][18]

The terms “terrorism” and “terrorist” gained renewed currency in the 1970s as a result of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict,[19] the Northern Ireland conflict,[20] the Basque conflict,[21] and the operations of groups such as the Red Army Faction.[22] Leila Khaled was described as a terrorist in a 1970 issue of Life magazine.[23] A number of books on terrorism were published in the 1970s.[24] The topic came further to the fore after the 1983 Beirut barracks bombings[9] and again after the 2001 September 11 attacks[9][25][26] and the 2002 Bali bombings.[9]

Definition

The definition of terrorism lacks universal agreement.[27][28][29] Challenges emerge due to the politically and emotionally charged nature of the term, and disagreement over the nature of terrorist acts and limits of the right to self-determination.[30][31] Harvard law professor Richard Baxter, a leading expert on the law of war, was a skeptic: “We have cause to regret that a legal concept of ‘terrorism’ was ever inflicted upon us. The term is imprecise; it is ambiguous; and above all, it serves no operative legal purpose.”[32][31]

Different legal systems and government agencies employ diverse definitions of terrorism, with governments showing hesitation in establishing a universally accepted, legally binding definition. Title 18 of the United States Code defines terrorism as acts that are intended to intimidate or coerce civilians or government.[33] The international community has been slow to formulate a universally agreed, legally binding definition of this crime, and has been unable to conclude a Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism that incorporates a single, all-encompassing, legally binding, criminal law definition of terrorism.[34] These difficulties arise from the fact that the term “terrorism” is politically and emotionally charged.[35][36] The international community has instead adopted a series of sectoral conventions that define and criminalize various types of terrorist activities.[citation needed]

Counterterrorism analyst Bruce Hoffman has noted that it is not only individual agencies within the same governmental apparatus that cannot agree on a single definition of terrorism; experts and other long-established scholars in the field are equally incapable of reaching a consensus.[37] In 1992, terrorism studies scholar Alex P. Schmid proposed a simple definition to the United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (CCPCJ) as “peacetime equivalents of war crimes,” but it was not accepted.[38][39] In 2006, it was estimated that there were over 109 different definitions of terrorism.[40]

Historical background

Until David C. Rapoport published his seminal article Fear and Trembling: Terrorism in Three Religious Traditions in 1984, scholars of terrorism had largely assumed that terrorism was a modern phenomenon.[41] Earlier published studies like Paul Wilkinson had considered terrorism to be a product of 19th century revolutionary politics. Technological developments like the pistol and bomb-making were considered instrumental to the relentless onslaught of assassinations, terrorism, bombings and political violence in the 19th century.[41][42]

Rapoport proposed three case studies to demonstrate “ancient lineage” of religious terrorism, which he called “sacred terror”: the “Thugs”, the Assassins and the Jewish Sicarii Zealots. Rapoport argued religious terrorism has been ongoing since ancient times and that “there are signs that it is reviving in new and unusual forms”. He is the first to propose that religious doctrines were more important than political rationales for some terrorist groups.[43][44] Rapoport’s work has since become the basis of the model of “New Terrorism” proposed by Bruce Hoffman and developed by other scholars. “New Terrorism” has had an unparalleled impact on policymaking. Critics have pointed out that the model is politically charged and over-simplified. The underlying historical assertions have received less critical attention.[45] According to The Oxford Handbook on the History of Terrorism:[41]

Since the publication of Rapoport’s article, it has become seemingly pre-requisite for standard works on terrorism to cite the three case studies and to reproduce uncritically its findings. In lieu of empirical research, authors tend to crudely paraphrase Rapoport and the assumed relevance of “Thuggee” to the study of modern terrorism is taken for granted. Yet the significance of the article is not simply a matter of citations―it has also provided the foundation for what has become known as the “New Terrorism” paradigm. While Rapoport did not suggest which late 20th century groups might exemplify the implied recurrence of “holy terror”, Bruce Hoffman, recognized today as one of the world’s leading terrorism experts, did not hesitate to do so. A decade after Rapoport’s article. Hoffman picked up the mantle and taking the three case studies as inspiration, he formulated a model of contemporary “holy terror” or, as he defined it, “terrorism motivated by a religious imperative”. Completely distinct from “secular terrorists”, Hoffman argued that “religious terrorists” carry out indiscriminate acts of violence as a divine duty with no consideration for political efficacy―their aim is transcendental and “holy terror” constitutes an end in itself. Hoffman’s concept has since been taken up and developed by a number of other writers, including Walter Laquer, Steven Simon and Daniel Daniel Benjamen, and rebranded as the “New Terrorism”.

Arguably, the first organization to use modern terrorist techniques was the Irish Republican Brotherhood,[46] founded in 1858 as a revolutionary Irish nationalist group[47] that carried out attacks in England.[48] The group initiated the Fenian dynamite campaign in 1881, one of the first modern terror campaigns.[49] Instead of earlier forms of terrorism based on political assassination, this campaign used timed explosives with the express aim of sowing fear in the very heart of metropolitan Britain, in order to achieve political gains.[50]

Another early terrorist-type group was Narodnaya Volya, founded in Russia in 1878 as a revolutionary anarchist group inspired by Sergei Nechayev and “propaganda by the deed” theorist Carlo Pisacane.[51][52] The group developed ideas—such as targeted killing of the ‘leaders of oppression’, which were to become the hallmark of subsequent violence by small non-state groups, and they were convinced that the developing technologies of the age—such as the invention of dynamite, which they were the first anarchist group to make widespread use of[53]—enabled them to strike directly and with discrimination.[54]

In 1920 Leon Trotsky wrote Terrorism and Communism to justify the Red Terror and defend the moral superiority of revolutionary terrorism.[55]

Media spectacle

Terrorists may attempt to use the media to spread their message or manipulate their target audience. Shamil Basayev used this tactic during the Budyonnovsk hospital hostage crisis and again in the Moscow theater hostage crisis.[56] Terrorists may also target national symbols for attention.[57]

Walter Lacquer wrote that “terrorism was always, to a large extent, about public relations and propaganda (‘Propaganda by Deed’ had been the slogan in the nineteenth century)”.[58]

The El Al Flight 426 hijacking is considered a turning point for modern terrorism studies. The PFLP realized they could combine the tactics of targeting national symbols and civilians (in this case as hostages) to generate a mass media spectacle. Zehdi Labib Terzi made a public statement about this in 1976: “The first several hijackings aroused the consciousness of the world and awakened the media and world opinion much more – and more effectively – than 20 years of pleading at the United Nations”.[59]

Mass media

Causes of death in the US vs media coverage. The percentage of media attention for terrorism (about 33-35%) is much greater than the percentage of deaths caused by terrorism (less than 0.01%).
La Terroriste, a 1910 poster depicting a female member of the Combat Organization of the Polish Socialist Party throwing a bomb at a Russian official’s car

Mass media exposure may be a primary goal of those carrying out terrorism, to expose issues that would otherwise be ignored by the media. Some consider this to be manipulation and exploitation of the media.[60]

The Internet has created a new way for groups to spread their messages.[61] This has created a cycle of measures and counter measures by groups in support of and in opposition to terrorist movements. The United Nations has created its own online counterterrorism resource.[62]

The mass media will, on occasion, censor organizations involved in terrorism (through self-restraint or regulation) to discourage further terrorism. This may encourage organizations to perform more extreme acts of terrorism to be shown in the mass media. Conversely James F. Pastor explains the significant relationship between terrorism and the media, and the underlying benefit each receives from the other:[63]

There is always a point at which the terrorist ceases to manipulate the media gestalt. A point at which the violence may well escalate, but beyond which the terrorist has become symptomatic of the media gestalt itself. Terrorism as we ordinarily understand it is innately media-related.

— Novelist William Gibson, 2004[64]

Former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher famously spoke of the close connection between terrorism and the media, calling publicity ‘the oxygen of terrorism’.[65]

Pejorative use

Having the connotation of “something morally wrong”, the term “terrorism” is often used to abuse or denounce opposite parties, either governments or non-state groups.[3][7][8][9][10] An example of this is the terruqueo political attack used by right-wing groups in Peru to target leftist groups or those opposed to the neoliberal status quo, likening opponents to guerrilla organizations[66] from the internal conflict in Peru.[67][68][69]

Those labeled “terrorists” by their opponents rarely identify themselves as such, but it was not always so. While a multitude of terms like separatistfreedom fighter, liberator, revolutionaryvigilantemilitant, paramilitary, guerrillarebel, patriot, have come into use, (including some culturally specific terms borrowed from other languages like Jihadimujahideen, and fedayeen), the unwillingness to self-identify as terrorists began when parties in a conflict started to describe each other as terrorists pejoratively.[70] As an example, when Vera Zasulich attacked a Russian official known for abusing prisoners she told the court “I am not a criminal, I am a terrorist!”. The stunned court acquitted Zazulich when they realized that she was trying to become a martyr. She was carried out of the courtroom on the shoulders of the crowd.[71]

Some groups and individuals have openly admitted to using “terrorist tactics” even while maintaining distance from the pejorative term in their self-descriptions. The Zionist militant group Lohamei Herut Yisrael admitted that they used terrorist tactics but used the euphemism “Freedom Fighters” to describe themselves (Lohamei Herut Yisrael means “Freedom Fighters for Israel”.)[72]

On whether particular terrorist acts, such as killing non-combatants, can be justified as the lesser evil in a particular circumstance, philosophers have expressed different views: while, according to David Rodinutilitarian philosophers can (in theory) conceive of cases in which the evil of terrorism is outweighed by the good that could not be achieved in a less morally costly way, in practice the “harmful effects of undermining the convention of non-combatant immunity is thought to outweigh the goods that may be achieved by particular acts of terrorism”.[73] Among the non-utilitarian philosophers, Michael Walzer argued that terrorism can be morally justified in only one specific case: when “a nation or community faces the extreme threat of complete destruction and the only way it can preserve itself is by intentionally targeting non-combatants, then it is morally entitled to do so”.[73][74]

In his book Inside Terrorism Bruce Hoffman offered an explanation of why the term terrorism becomes distorted:

On one point, at least, everyone agrees: terrorism is a pejorative term. It is a word with intrinsically negative connotations that is generally applied to one’s enemies and opponents, or to those with whom one disagrees and would otherwise prefer to ignore. ‘What is called terrorism,’ Brian Jenkins has written, ‘thus seems to depend on one’s point of view. Use of the term implies a moral judgment; and if one party can successfully attach the label terrorist to its opponent, then it has indirectly persuaded others to adopt its moral viewpoint.’ Hence the decision to call someone or label some organization terrorist becomes almost unavoidably subjective, depending largely on whether one sympathizes with or opposes the person/group/cause concerned. If one identifies with the victim of the violence, for example, then the act is terrorism. If, however, one identifies with the perpetrator, the violent act is regarded in a more sympathetic, if not positive (or, at the worst, an ambivalent) light; and it is not terrorism.[75][76]

The pejorative connotations of the word can be summed up in the aphorism, “One man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter”.[70] This is exemplified when a group using irregular military methods is an ally of a state against a mutual enemy, but later falls out with the state and starts to use those methods against its former ally.

President Reagan meeting with Afghan Mujahideen leaders in the Oval Office in 1983

During the Second World War, the Malayan People’s Anti-Japanese Army were allied with the British, but during the Malayan Emergency, members of its successor organisation (the Malayan National Liberation Army) started campaigns against them, and were branded “terrorists” as a result.[77][78] More recently, Ronald Reagan and others in the American administration frequently called the mujaheddin “freedom fighters” during the Soviet–Afghan War,[79] however twenty years later, when a new generation of Afghan men (militant groups like the Taliban and allies) were fighting against what they perceive to be a regime installed by foreign powers, their attacks were labelled terrorism by George W. Bush.[80][81][82]

Groups accused of terrorism understandably prefer terms reflecting legitimate military or ideological action.[83][84][85] Leading terrorism researcher Professor Martin Rudner, director of the Canadian Centre of Intelligence and Security Studies at Ottawa’s Carleton University, defines “terrorist acts” as unlawful attacks for political or other ideological goals, and said:

There is the famous statement: ‘One man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter.’ But that is grossly misleading. It assesses the validity of the cause when terrorism is an act. One can have a perfectly beautiful cause and yet if one commits terrorist acts, it is terrorism regardless.[86]

Some groups, when involved in a “liberation” struggle, have been called “terrorists” by the Western governments or media. Later, these same persons, as leaders of the liberated nations, are called “statesmen” by similar organizations. Two examples of this phenomenon are the Nobel Peace Prize laureates Menachem Begin and Nelson Mandela.[87][88][89][90] WikiLeaks editor Julian Assange has been called a “terrorist” by Sarah Palin and Joe Biden.[91][92]

Media outlets who wish to convey impartiality may limit their usage of “terrorist” and “terrorism” because they are loosely defined, potentially controversial in nature, and subjective terms.[93][94]

The 2020 Nashville bombing revived a debate over the use of the word “terrorism”, with critics saying it is quickly applied to attacks by Muslims but reluctantly if at all used by white Christian men, such as the Nashville bomber.[95]

Types

Depending on the country, the political system, and the time in history, the types of terrorism are varying.

Number of failed, foiled or successful terrorist attacks by year and type within the European Union. Source: Europol.[96][97][98]
Aftermath of the King David Hotel bombing by the Zionist militant group Irgun, July 1946
A view of damage to the U.S. Embassy in the aftermath of the 1983 Beirut bombing caused by Islamic Jihad Organization and Hezbollah

In early 1975, the Law Enforcement Assistant Administration in the United States formed the National Advisory Committee on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals. One of the five volumes that the committee wrote was titled Disorders and Terrorism, produced by the Task Force on Disorders and Terrorism under the direction of H. H. A. Cooper, Director of the Task Force staff.

The Task Force defines terrorism as “a tactic or technique by means of which a violent act or the threat thereof is used for the prime purpose of creating overwhelming fear for coercive purposes”. It classified disorders and terrorism into seven categories:[99]

  • Civil disorder – A form of collective violence interfering with the peace, security, and normal functioning of the community.
  • Political terrorism – Violent criminal behaviour designed primarily to generate fear in the community, or substantial segment of it, for political purposes.
  • Non-Political terrorism – Terrorism that is not aimed at political purposes, but which exhibits “conscious design to create and maintain a high degree of fear for coercive purposes, but the end is individual or collective gain rather than the achievement of a political objective”.
  • Anonymous terrorism – In the two decades prior to 2016–19, “fewer than half” of all terrorist attacks were either “claimed by their perpetrators or convincingly attributed by governments to specific terrorist groups”. A number of theories have been advanced as to why this has happened.[100]
  • Quasi-terrorism – The activities incidental to the commission of crimes of violence that are similar in form and method to genuine terrorism, but which nevertheless lack its essential ingredient. It is not the main purpose of the quasi-terrorists to induce terror in the immediate victim as in the case of genuine terrorism, but the quasi-terrorist uses the modalities and techniques of the genuine terrorist and produces similar consequences and reaction.[101] For example, the fleeing felon who takes hostages is a quasi-terrorist, whose methods are similar to those of the genuine terrorist but whose purposes are quite different.
  • Limited political terrorism – Genuine political terrorism is characterized by a revolutionary approach; limited political terrorism refers to “acts of terrorism which are committed for ideological or political motives but which are not part of a concerted campaign to capture control of the state“.
  • Official or state terrorism – “referring to nations whose rule is based upon fear and oppression that reach similar to terrorism or such proportions”. It may be referred to as Structural Terrorism defined broadly as terrorist acts carried out by governments in pursuit of political objectives, often as part of their foreign policy.

Other sources have defined the typology of terrorism in different ways, for example, broadly classifying it into domestic terrorism and international terrorism, or using categories such as vigilante terrorism or insurgent terrorism.[102] Some ways the typology of terrorism may be defined are:[103][104]

Causes and motivations

Terrorist acts frequently have a political purpose based on self-determination claims, ethnonationalist frustrations, single issue causes (like abortion or the environment), or other ideological or religious causes that terrorists claim are a moral justification for their violent acts.[105]

Choice of terrorism as a tactic

Individuals and groups choose terrorism as a tactic because it can:

  • Act as a form of asymmetric warfare in order to directly force a government to agree to demands
  • Intimidate a group of people into capitulating to the demands in order to avoid future injury
  • Get attention and thus political support for a cause
  • Directly inspire more people to the cause (such as revolutionary acts) – propaganda of the deed
  • Indirectly inspire more people to the cause by provoking a hostile response or over-reaction from enemies to the cause[106]

Attacks on “collaborators” are used to intimidate people from cooperating with the state in order to undermine state control. This strategy was used in Ireland, in Kenya, in Algeria and in Cyprus during their independence struggles.[107]

Stated motives for the September 11 attacks included inspiring more fighters to join the cause of repelling the United States from Muslim countries with a successful high-profile attack. The attacks prompted some criticism from domestic and international observers regarding perceived injustices in U.S. foreign policy that provoked the attacks, but the larger practical effect was that the United States government declared a War on Terror that resulted in substantial military engagements in several Muslim-majority countries. Various commentators have inferred that al-Qaeda expected a military response and welcomed it as a provocation that would result in more Muslims fight the United States. Some commentators believe that the resulting anger and suspicion directed toward innocent Muslims living in Western countries and the indignities inflicted upon them by security forces and the general public also contributes to radicalization of new recruits.[106] Despite criticism that the Iraqi government had no involvement with the September 11 attacks, Bush declared the 2003 invasion of Iraq to be part of the War on Terror. The resulting backlash and instability enabled the rise of Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and the temporary creation of an Islamic caliphate holding territory in Iraq and Syria, until ISIL lost its territory through military defeats.

Attacks used to draw international attention to struggles that are otherwise unreported have included the Palestinian airplane hijackings in 1970 and the 1975 Dutch train hostage crisis.

Causes motivating terrorism

Specific political or social causes have included:

Causes for right-wing terrorism have included white nationalismethnonationalism, fascism, anti-socialism, the anti-abortion movement, and tax resistance.

Sometimes terrorists on the same side fight for different reasons. For example, in the Chechen–Russian conflict secular Chechens using terrorist tactics fighting for national independence are allied with radical Islamist terrorists who have arrived from other countries.[108]

Personal and social factors

Various personal and social factors may influence the personal choice of whether to join a terrorist group or attempt an act of terror, including:

  • Identity, including affiliation with a particular culture, ethnicity, or religion
  • Previous exposure to violence
  • Financial reward (for example, the Palestinian Authority Martyrs Fund)
  • Mental illness
  • Social isolation
  • Perception that the cause responds to a profound injustice or indignity

A report conducted by Paul Gill, John Horgan and Paige Deckert[dubious ] found that for “lone wolf” terrorists:[109]

  • 43% were motivated by religious beliefs
  • 32% had pre-existing mental health disorders, while many more are found to have mental health problems upon arrest
  • At least 37% lived alone at the time of their event planning and/or execution, a further 26% lived with others, and no data were available for the remaining cases
  • 40% were unemployed at the time of their arrest or terrorist event
  • 19% subjectively experienced being disrespected by others
  • 14% percent experienced being the victim of verbal or physical assault

Ariel Merari, a psychologist who has studied the psychological profiles of suicide terrorists since 1983 through media reports that contained biographical details, interviews with the suicides’ families, and interviews with jailed would-be suicide attackers, concluded that they were unlikely to be psychologically abnormal.[110] In comparison to economic theories of criminal behaviour, Scott Atran found that suicide terrorists exhibit none of the socially dysfunctional attributes—such as fatherless, friendless, jobless situations—or suicidal symptoms. By which he means, they do not kill themselves simply out of hopelessness or a sense of ‘having nothing to lose’.[111]

Abrahm suggests that terrorist organizations do not select terrorism for its political effectiveness.[112] Individual terrorists tend to be motivated more by a desire for social solidarity with other members of their organization than by political platforms or strategic objectives, which are often murky and undefined.[112]

Michael Mousseau shows possible relationships between the type of economy within a country and ideology associated with terrorism.[example needed][113] Many terrorists have a history of domestic violence.[114]

Democracy and domestic terrorism

Terrorism is most common in nations with intermediate political freedom, and it is least common in the most democratic nations.[115][116][117][118]

Some examples of “terrorism” in non-democratic nations include ETA in Spain under Francisco Franco (although the group’s terrorist activities increased sharply after Franco’s death),[119] the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists in pre-war Poland,[120] the Shining Path in Peru under Alberto Fujimori,[121] the Kurdistan Workers Party when Turkey was ruled by military leaders and the ANC in South Africa.[122] Democracies, such as Japan, the United Kingdom, the United StatesIsraelIndonesiaIndiaSpainGermanyItaly and the Philippines, have experienced domestic terrorism.

While a democratic nation espousing civil liberties may claim a sense of higher moral ground than other regimes, an act of terrorism within such a state may cause a dilemma: whether to maintain its civil liberties and thus risk being perceived as ineffective in dealing with the problem; or alternatively to restrict its civil liberties and thus risk delegitimizing its claim of supporting civil liberties.[123] For this reason, homegrown terrorism has started to be seen as a greater threat, as stated by former CIA Director Michael Hayden.[124] This dilemma, some social theorists would conclude, may very well play into the initial plans of the acting terrorist(s); namely, to delegitimize the state and cause a systematic shift towards anarchy via the accumulation of negative sentiments towards the state system.[125]

Religious terrorism

According to the Global Terrorism Index by the University of Maryland, College Parkreligious extremism has overtaken national separatism and become the main driver of terrorist attacks around the world. Since 9/11 there has been a five-fold increase in deaths from terrorist attacks. The majority of incidents over the past several years can be tied to groups with a religious agenda. Before 2000, it was nationalist separatist terrorist organizations such as the IRA and Chechen rebels who were behind the most attacks. The number of incidents from nationalist separatist groups has remained relatively stable in the years since while religious extremism has grown. The prevalence of Islamist groups in IraqAfghanistanPakistanNigeria and Syria is the main driver behind these trends.[126]

The emergence of Hezbollah in 1982 marked a pivotal moment in terrorism’s history.[127] The Shiite Islamist group, rooted in Lebanon, drew inspiration from the Iranian Revolution and Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini‘s teachings, responding to the 1982 Lebanon War. Beyond pursuing revolutionary goals, Hezbollah members were deeply concerned about the social conditions of Shiite communities across the Middle East. Their activities in Lebanon during the 1980s garnered support among local Shiites, leading to the rise of smaller terrorist groups, notably the Islamic Jihad.[127]

Hamas, the main Islamist movement in the Palestinian territories, was formed by Palestinian imam Ahmed Yassin in 1987. Hamas members seek their identity in their Islamic roots. Hamas maintains an uncompromising and maximalist stance, emphasizing the complete liberation of the sacred land of Palestine they interpret as demanded by Allah, who will repay martyrs for this cause with life everlasting.[127][128] Hamas’ ideology includes antisemitic elements and, according to some studies, even incorporates genocidal aspirations.[129][130][131] In the periods of 1994–1996 and 2001–2007, Hamas orchestrated a series of suicide bombings, primarily directed at civilian targets in Israel, killing over 1,000 Israeli civilians.[132] Following their takeover of the Gaza Strip in 2007, the group has launched thousands of rockets towards Israeli population centers.[133]

A child’s bedroom in the aftermath of the Kfar Aza massacre during the 2023 Hamas-led attack on Israel. Hamas, a Palestinian Islamist group, was designated a terrorist organization by the US, UK, European Union, Australia, Japan, OAS, Canada, Israel.

Five of the terrorist groups that have been most active since 2001 are Hamas, Boko Haramal-Qaeda, the Taliban and ISIL. These groups have been most active in Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nigeria and Syria. Eighty percent of all deaths from terrorism occurred in these five countries.[126] In 2015 four Islamic extremist groups were responsible for 74% of all deaths from Islamic terrorism: ISIS, Boko Haram, the Taliban, and al-Qaeda, according to the Global Terrorism Index 2016.[134] Since approximately 2000, these incidents have occurred on a global scale, affecting not only Muslim-majority states in Africa and Asia, but also states with non-Muslim majority such as United StatesUnited KingdomFranceGermanySpainBelgiumSwedenRussiaAustraliaCanadaSri LankaIsraelChinaIndia and Philippines. Such attacks have targeted both Muslims and non-Muslims, however the majority affect Muslims themselves.[135]

Islamabad Marriott Hotel bombing. Approximately 35,000 Pakistanis died from terrorist attacks between 2001 and 2011.[136]

Terrorism in Pakistan has become a great problem. From the summer of 2007 until late 2009, more than 1,500 people were killed in suicide and other attacks on civilians[137] for reasons attributed to a number of causes—sectarian violence between Sunni and Shia Muslims; easy availability of guns and explosives; the existence of a “Kalashnikov culture”; an influx of ideologically driven Muslims based in or near Pakistan, who originated from various nations around the world and the subsequent war against the pro-Soviet Afghans in the 1980s which blew back into Pakistan; the presence of Islamist insurgent groups and forces such as the Taliban and Lashkar-e-Taiba. On July 2, 2013, in Lahore, 50 Muslim scholars of the Sunni Ittehad Council (SIC) issued a collective fatwa against suicide bombings, the killing of innocent people, bomb attacks, and targeted killings declaring them as Haraam or forbidden.[138]

In 2015, the Southern Poverty Law Center released a report on terrorism in the United States. The report (titled The Age of the Wolf) analyzed 62 incidents and found that, between 2009 and 2015, “more people have been killed in America by non-Islamic domestic terrorists than jihadists.”[139] The “virulent racist and antisemitic” ideology of the ultra-right wing Christian Identity movement is usually accompanied by anti-government sentiments.[140] Adherents of Christian Identity are not connected with specific Christian denominations,[141] and they believe that whites of European descent can be traced back to the “Lost Tribes of Israel” and many consider Jews to be the Satanic offspring of Eve and the Serpent.[140] This group has committed hate crimes, bombings and other acts of terrorism. Its influence ranges from the Ku Klux Klan and neo-Nazi groups to the anti-government militia and sovereign citizen movements.[140] Christian Identity’s origins can be traced back to Anglo-Israelism, which held the view that the British people were descendants of ancient Israelites. However, in the United States, the ideology started to become rife with anti-Semitism, and eventually Christian Identity theology diverged from the philo-semitic Anglo-Israelism, and developed what is known as the “two seed” theory.[140] According to the two-seed theory, the Jewish people are descended from Cain and the serpent (not from Shem).[140] The white European seedline is descended from the “lost tribes” of Israel. They hold themselves to “God’s laws”, not to “man’s laws”, and they do not feel bound to a government that they consider run by Jews and the New World Order.[140] The Ku Klux Klan is widely denounced by Christian denominations.[142]

Dawabsheh family home after Duma arson attack

Israel has had problems with Jewish religious terrorism even before independence in 1948. During British mandate over Palestine, the Irgun were among the Zionist groups labelled as terrorist organisations by the British authorities and United Nations,[143] for violent terror attacks against Britons and Arabs.[144][145] Another extremist group, the Lehi, openly declared its members as “terrorists”.[146][147] Historian William Cleveland stated many Jews justified any action, even terrorism, taken in the cause of the creation of a Jewish state.[148] In 1995, Yigal Amir assassinated Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin. For Amir, killing Rabin was an exemplary act that symbolized the fight against an illegitimate government that was prepared to cede Jewish Holy Land to the Palestinians.[149] Members of Kach, a Jewish ultranationalist party, employed terrorist tactics in pursuit of what they viewed as religious imperatives. Israel and a few other countries have designated the party as a terrorist group.[150]

Perpetrators

Al-Qaeda in Maghreb members pose with weapons.

The perpetrators of acts of terrorism can be individuals, groups, or states. According to some definitions, clandestine or semi-clandestine state actors may carry out terrorist acts outside the framework of a state of war. The most common image of terrorism is that it is carried out by small and secretive cells, highly motivated to serve a particular cause and many of the most deadly operations in recent times, such as the September 11 attacks, the London underground bombing2008 Mumbai attacks and the 2002 Bali bombing were planned and carried out by a close clique, composed of close friends, family members and other strong social networks. These groups benefited from the free flow of information and efficient telecommunications to succeed where others had failed.[151]

Over the years, much research has been conducted to distill a terrorist profile to explain these individuals’ actions through their psychology and socio-economic circumstances.[152] Others, like Roderick Hindery, have sought to discern profiles in the propaganda tactics used by terrorists. Some security organizations designate these groups as violent non-state actors.[citation needed] A 2007 study by economist Alan B. Krueger found that terrorists were less likely to come from an impoverished background (28 percent versus 33 percent) and more likely to have at least a high-school education (47 percent versus 38 percent). Another analysis found only 16 percent of terrorists came from impoverished families, versus 30 percent of male Palestinians, and over 60 percent had gone beyond high school, versus 15 percent of the populace. A study into the poverty-stricken conditions and whether terrorists are more likely to come from here, show that people who grew up in these situations tend to show aggression and frustration towards others. This theory is largely debated for the simple fact that just because one is frustrated, does not make them a potential terrorist.[40][153]

To avoid detection, a terrorist will look, dress, and behave normally until executing the assigned mission. Some claim that attempts to profile terrorists based on personality, physical, or sociological traits are not useful.[154] The physical and behavioral description of the terrorist could describe almost any normal person.[155] The majority of terrorist attacks are carried out by military age men, aged 16 to 40.[155]

Non-state groups

Picture of the front of an addressed envelope to Senator Daschle.
There is speculation that the 2001 anthrax attacks were the work of a lone wolf.

Groups not part of the state apparatus of in opposition to the state are most commonly referred to as a “terrorist” in the media.

According to the Global Terrorism Database, the most active terrorist group in the period 1970 to 2010 was Shining Path (with 4,517 attacks), followed by Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN), Irish Republican Army (IRA), Basque Fatherland and Freedom (ETA), Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), TalibanLiberation Tigers of Tamil EelamNew People’s ArmyNational Liberation Army of Colombia (ELN), and Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK).[156]

State sponsors

A state can sponsor terrorism by funding or harboring a terrorist group. Opinions as to which acts of violence by states consist of state-sponsored terrorism vary widely. When states provide funding for groups considered by some to be terrorist, they rarely acknowledge them as such.[157][citation needed]

State terrorism

Civilization is based on a clearly defined and widely accepted yet often unarticulated hierarchy. Violence done by those higher on the hierarchy to those lower is nearly always invisible, that is, unnoticed. When it is noticed, it is fully rationalized. Violence done by those lower on the hierarchy to those higher is unthinkable, and when it does occur it is regarded with shock, horror, and the fetishization of the victims.

Infant crying in Shanghai’s South Station after the Japanese bombing, August 28, 1937

As with “terrorism” the concept of “state terrorism” is controversial.[159] The Chairman of the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Committee has stated that the committee was conscious of 12 international conventions on the subject, and none of them referred to state terrorism, which was not an international legal concept. If states abused their power, they should be judged against international conventions dealing with war crimesinternational human rights law, and international humanitarian law.[160] Former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan has said that it is “time to set aside debates on so-called ‘state terrorism’. The use of force by states is already thoroughly regulated under international law”.[161] He made clear that, “regardless of the differences between governments on the question of the definition of terrorism, what is clear and what we can all agree on is that any deliberate attack on innocent civilians [or non-combatants], regardless of one’s cause, is unacceptable and fits into the definition of terrorism.”[162]

USS Arizona (BB-39) burning during the Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941

State terrorism has been used to refer to terrorist acts committed by governmental agents or forces. This involves the use of state resources employed by a state’s foreign policies, such as using its military to directly perform acts of terrorism. Professor of Political Science Michael Stohl cites the examples that include the German bombing of London, the Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, the Allied firebombing of Dresden, and the U.S. atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II. He argues that “the use of terror tactics is common in international relations and the state has been and remains a more likely employer of terrorism within the international system than insurgents.” He cites the first strike option as an example of the “terror of coercive diplomacy” as a form of this, which holds the world hostage with the implied threat of using nuclear weapons in “crisis management” and he argues that the institutionalized form of terrorism has occurred as a result of changes that took place following World War II. In this analysis, state terrorism exhibited as a form of foreign policy was shaped by the presence and use of weapons of mass destruction, and the legitimizing of such violent behavior led to an increasingly accepted form of this behavior by the state.[163][164][165]

St Paul’s Cathedral after the German bombing of London, c. 1940

Charles Stewart Parnell described William Ewart Gladstone‘s Irish Coercion Act as terrorism in his “no-Rent manifesto” in 1881, during the Irish Land War.[166] The concept is used to describe political repressions by governments against their own civilian populations with the purpose of inciting fear. For example, taking and executing civilian hostages or extrajudicial elimination campaigns are commonly considered “terror” or terrorism, for example during the Red Terror or the Great Terror.[167] Such actions are often described as democide or genocide, which have been argued to be equivalent to state terrorism.[168] Empirical studies on this have found that democracies have little democide.[169][170] Western democracies, including the United States, have supported state terrorism[171] and mass killings,[172][173] with some examples being the Indonesian mass killings of 1965–66 and Operation Condor.[174][175][176]

Connection with tourism

The connection between terrorism and tourism has been widely studied since the Luxor massacre in Egypt.[177][178] In the 1970s, the targets of terrorists were politicians and chiefs of police while now, international tourists and visitors are selected as the main targets of attacks. The attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, were the symbolic center, which marked a new epoch in the use of civil transport against the main power of the planet.[179] From this event onwards, the spaces of leisure that characterized the pride of West were conceived as dangerous and frightful.[180][181]

Funding

State sponsors have constituted a major form of funding; for example, Palestine Liberation OrganizationDemocratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine and other groups sometimes considered to be terrorist organizations, were funded by the Soviet Union.[182][183] Iran has provided funds, training, and weapons to organizations such as Lebanese Shi’ite group Hezbollah, the Yemenite Houthi movement, and Palestinian factions such as Hamas and Islamic Jihad.[184][185][186] Iranian funding for Hamas is estimated to reach several hundred million dollars annually.[187][188] These groups and others have played significant roles in Iran’s foreign policy and served as proxies in conflicts.[184] The Stern Gang received funding from Italian Fascist officers in Beirut to undermine the British authorities in Palestine.[189]

Revolutionary tax” is another major form of funding, and essentially a euphemism for “protection money“.[182] Revolutionary taxes “play a secondary role as one other means of intimidating the target population”.[182]

Other major sources of funding include kidnapping for ransoms, smuggling (including wildlife smuggling),[190] fraud, and robbery.[182] The Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant has reportedly received funding “via private donations from the Gulf states“.[191] Irish Republican militants, primarily the Provisional Irish Republican Army and the Irish National Liberation Army, and Loyalist paramilitaries, primarily the Ulster Volunteer Force and Ulster Defence Association, received far more financing from criminal and legitimate activities within the British Isles than overseas donations, including Libyan dictator Muammar Gaddafi and NORAID (see Paramilitary finances in the Troubles for more information).[192][193][194][195]

The Financial Action Task Force is an inter-governmental body whose mandate, since October 2001, has included combating terrorist financing.[196]

Tactics

The Wall Street bombing at noon on September 16, 1920, killed thirty-eight people and injured several hundred. The perpetrators were never caught.[197]

Terrorist attacks are often targeted to maximize fear and publicity, most frequently using explosives.[198] Terrorist groups usually methodically plan attacks in advance, and may train participants, plant undercover agents, and raise money from supporters or through organized crime. Communications occur through modern telecommunications, or through old-fashioned methods such as couriers. There is concern about terrorist attacks employing weapons of mass destruction. Some academics have argued that while it is often assumed terrorism is intended to spread fear, this is not necessarily true, with fear instead being a by-product of the terrorist’s actions, while their intentions may be to avenge fallen comrades or destroy their perceived enemies.[199]

Terrorism is a form of asymmetric warfare and is more common when direct conventional warfare will not be effective because opposing forces vary greatly in power.[200] Yuval Harari argues that the peacefulness of modern states makes them paradoxically more vulnerable to terrorism than pre-modern states. Harari argues that because modern states have committed themselves to reducing political violence to almost zero, terrorists can, by creating political violence, threaten the very foundations of the legitimacy of the modern state. This is in contrast to pre-modern states, where violence was a routine and recognised aspect of politics at all levels, making political violence unremarkable. Terrorism thus shocks the population of a modern state far more than a pre-modern one and consequently the state is forced to overreact in an excessive, costly and spectacular manner, which is often what the terrorists desire.[201]

The type of people terrorists will target is dependent upon the ideology of the terrorists. A terrorist’s ideology will create a class of “legitimate targets” who are deemed as its enemies and who are permitted to be targeted. This ideology will also allow the terrorists to place the blame on the victim, who is viewed as being responsible for the violence in the first place.[202][203]

The context in which terrorist tactics are used is often a large-scale, unresolved political conflict. The type of conflict varies widely; historical examples include:

  • Secession of a territory to form a new sovereign state or become part of a different state
  • Dominance of territory or resources by various ethnic groups
  • Imposition of a particular form of government
  • Economic deprivation of a population
  • Opposition to a domestic government or occupying army
  • Religious fanaticism

Responses

Sign notifying shoppers of increased surveillance due to a perceived increased risk of terrorism

Responses to terrorism are broad in scope. They can include re-alignments of the political spectrum and reassessments of fundamental values.

Specific types of responses include:

The term “counterterrorism” has a narrower connotation, implying that it is directed at terrorist actors.

Terrorism research

Terrorism research, also called terrorism studies, or terrorism and counter-terrorism research, is an interdisciplinary academic field which seeks to understand the causes of terrorism, how to prevent it as well as its impact in the broadest sense. Terrorism research can be carried out in both military and civilian contexts, for example by research centres such as the British Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence, the Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies, and the International Centre for Counter-Terrorism (ICCT). There are several academic journals devoted to the field, including Perspectives on Terrorism.[204][205]

International agreements

One of the agreements that promote the international legal counterterrorist framework is the Code of Conduct Towards Achieving a World Free of Terrorism that was adopted at the 73rd session of the United Nations General Assembly in 2018. The Code of Conduct was initiated by Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbayev. Its main goal is to implement a wide range of international commitments to counterterrorism and establish a broad global coalition towards achieving a world free of terrorism by 2045. The Code was signed by more than 70 countries.[206]

Response in the United States

X-ray backscatter technology (AIT) machine used by the TSA to screen passengers. According to the TSA, this is what the remote TSA agent would see on their screen.

According to a report by Dana Priest and William M. Arkin in The Washington Post, “Some 1,271 government organizations and 1,931 private companies work on programs related to counterterrorism, homeland security and intelligence in about 10,000 locations across the United States.”[207]

America’s thinking on how to defeat radical Islamists is split along two very different schools of thought. Republicans, typically follow what is known as the Bush Doctrine, advocate the military model of taking the fight to the enemy and seeking to democratize the Middle East. Democrats, by contrast, generally propose the law enforcement model of better cooperation with nations and more security at home.[208] In the introduction of the U.S. Army / Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field ManualSarah Sewall states the need for “U.S. forces to make securing the civilian, rather than destroying the enemy, their top priority. The civilian population is the center of gravity—the deciding factor in the struggle…. Civilian deaths create an extended family of enemies—new insurgent recruits or informants—and erode support of the host nation.” Sewall sums up the book’s key points on how to win this battle: “Sometimes, the more you protect your force, the less secure you may be…. Sometimes, the more force is used, the less effective it is…. The more successful the counterinsurgency is, the less force can be used and the more risk must be accepted…. Sometimes, doing nothing is the best reaction.”[209] This strategy, often termed “courageous restraint”, has certainly led to some success on the Middle East battlefield. However, it does not address the fact that terrorists are mostly homegrown.[208]

Outcome of terrorist groups

How terrorist groups end (n = 268): The most common ending for a terrorist group is to convert to nonviolence via negotiations (43%), with most of the rest terminated by routine policing (40%). Groups that were ended by military force constituted only 7%.[210]

Jones and Libicki (2008) created a list of all the terrorist groups they could find that were active between 1968 and 2006. They found 648. Of those, 136 splintered and 244 were still active in 2006.[211] Of the ones that ended, 43% converted to nonviolent political actions, like the Irish Republican Army in Northern Ireland; 40% were defeated by law enforcement; 7% (20 groups) were defeated by military force; and 10% succeeded.

42 groups became large enough to be labeled an insurgency; 38 of those had ended by 2006. Of those, 47% converted to nonviolent political actors. Only 5% were ended by law enforcement, and 21% were defeated by military force. 26% won.[212] Jones and Libicki concluded that military force may be necessary to deal with large insurgencies but are only occasionally decisive, because the military is too often seen as a bigger threat to civilians than the terrorists. To avoid that, the rules of engagement must be conscious of collateral damage and work to minimize it.

Another researcher, Audrey Cronin, lists six primary ways that terrorist groups end:[213]

  1. Capture or killing of a group’s leader (Decapitation)
  2. Entry of the group into a legitimate political process (Negotiation)
  3. Achievement of group aims (Success)
  4. Group implosion or loss of public support (Failure)
  5. Defeat and elimination through brute force (Repression)
  6. Transition from terrorism into other forms of violence (Reorientation)

Databases

The following terrorism databases are or were made publicly available for research purposes, and track specific acts of terrorism:

The following public report and index provides a summary of key global trends and patterns in terrorism around the world:

The following publicly available resources index electronic and bibliographic resources on the subject of terrorism:

The following terrorism databases are maintained in secrecy by the United States Government for intelligence and counterterrorism purposes:

Jones and Libicki (2008) includes a table of 268 terrorist groups active between 1968 and 2006 with their status as of 2006: still active, splintered, converted to nonviolence, removed by law enforcement or military, or won. (These data are not in a convenient machine-readable format but are available.)

Infographics

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Wisnewski, J. Jeremy, ed. (2008). Torture, Terrorism, and the Use of Violence (also available as Review Journal of Political Philosophy Volume 6, Issue Number 1). Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 175. ISBN 978-1-4438-0291-8.
  2. ^ Halibozek, Edward P.; Jones, Andy; Kovacich, Gerald L. (2008). The corporate security professional’s handbook on terrorism (illustrated ed.). Elsevier (Butterworth-Heinemann). pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-0-7506-8257-2. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
  3. Jump up to:a b c Mackey, Robert (November 20, 2009). “Can Soldiers Be Victims of Terrorism?”The New York Times. Retrieved January 11, 2010Terrorism is the deliberate killing of innocent people, at random, in order to spread fear through a whole population and force the hand of its political leaders.
  4. ^ Stevenson, Angus, ed. (2010). Oxford dictionary of English (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-957112-3.
  5. ^ “Global Terrorism Index 2015” (PDF). Institute for Economics and Peace. p. 33. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 7, 2019. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
  6. ^ “Terrorism”Encyclopædia Britannica. p. 3. Retrieved September 8, 2020.
  7. Jump up to:a b Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Antonius, Daniel (2012). The Psychology of Terrorism Fears. Oxford University Press, US. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-19-538811-4.
  8. Jump up to:a b White, Jonathan R. (January 1, 2016). Terrorism and Homeland Security. Cengage Learning. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-305-63377-3.
  9. Jump up to:a b c d e Heryanto, Ariel (April 7, 2006). State Terrorism and Political Identity in Indonesia: Fatally Belonging. Routledge. p. 161. ISBN 978-1-134-19569-5.
  10. Jump up to:a b Ruthven, Malise; Nanji, Azim (April 24, 2017). Historical Atlas of Islam. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01385-8.
  11. Jump up to:a b Majoran, Andrew (August 1, 2014). “The Illusion of War: Is Terrorism a Criminal Act or an Act of War?”. Mackenzie Institute. Retrieved April 24, 2020.
  12. ^ Bohmer, Carol (2010). Rejecting refugees: political asylum in the 21st century. Routledge. p. 258. ISBN 978-0-415-77375-1OCLC 743396687.
  13. ^ Eviatar, Daphne (June 13, 2013). “Is ‘Terrorism’ a War Crime Triable by Military Commission? Who Knows?”HuffPost. Retrieved April 29, 2017.
  14. ^ Jenny Teichman (1989). “How to Define Terrorism”. Philosophy64 (250): 505–517. doi:10.1017/S0031819100044260JSTOR 3751606S2CID 144723359.
  15. ^ Edmund Burke – To The Earl Fitzwilliam (Christmas, 1795.) In: Edmund Burke, Select Works of Edmund Burke, vol. 3 (Letters on a Regicide Peace) (1795).
    This Internet version contains two, mingled, indications of page numbers: one with single brackets like [260], one with double brackets like [ [309] ]. Burke lengthily introduces his view on ‘this present Directory government‘, and then writes on page [359]: “Those who arbitrarily erected the new building out of the old materials of their own Convention, were obliged to send for an Army to support their work. (…) At length, after a terrible struggle, the Troops prevailed over the Citizens. (…) This power is to last as long as the Parisians think proper. (…) [315] To secure them further, they have a strong corps of irregulars, ready armed. Thousands of those Hell-hounds called Terrorists, whom they had shut up in Prison on their last Revolution, as the Satellites of Tyranny, are let loose on the people. (…)”
  16. ^ de Niet, J.; Paul, H. (2009). Sober, Strict, and Scriptural: Collective Memories of John Calvin, 1800-2000. Brill’s Series in Church History. Brill. p. 275. ISBN 978-90-474-2770-4. Retrieved October 21, 2022.
  17. ^ Oechsli, W.; Paul, E.; Paul, C. (1922). History of Switzerland, 1499-1914. Cambridge historical series. The University Press. p. 166. Retrieved October 21, 2022.
  18. ^ Association of American Law Schools (1916). The Continental Legal History Series. Little, Brown, & Company. p. 297. Retrieved October 21, 2022.
  19. ^ Peleg, Ilan (1988). “Terrorism in the Middle East: The Case of the Arab-Israeli Conflict”. In Stohl, Michael (ed.). The Politics of Terrorism (Third ed.). CRC Press. p. 531. ISBN 978-0-8247-7814-9. Retrieved February 14, 2019.
  20. ^ Crenshaw, Martha (2010). Terrorism in Context. Penn State Press. p. xiii. ISBN 978-0-271-04442-2. Retrieved February 14, 2019.
  21. ^ Shabad, Goldie; Llera Ramo, Francisco Jose (2010). “Political Violence in a Democratic State: Basque Terrorism in Spain”. In Crenshaw, Martha (ed.). Terrorism in Context. Penn State Press. ISBN 9780271044422. Retrieved February 14, 2019.
  22. ^ Corrado, Raymond R.; Evans, Rebecca (January 29, 1988). “Ethnic and Ideological Terrorism in Western Europe”. In Stohl, Michael (ed.). The Politics of Terrorism (Third ed.). CRC Press. p. 373. ISBN 9780824778149. Retrieved February 14, 2019.
  23. ^ Khaled, Leila (September 18, 1970). “This is Your New Captain Speaking”Life. p. 34. Retrieved February 14, 2019.
  24. ^ Committee on the Judiciary, Terroristic Activity: International terrorism; Lester A. Sobel, Political Terrorism; Lauran Paine, The Terrorists (1975); Walter Laqueur, Guerrilla Warfare: A Historical and Critical Study; Paul Wilkinson, Terrorism versus liberal democracy: the problems of response; Albert Parry, Terrorism: from Robespierre to Arafat (1976); Ovid Demaris, Brothers in Blood: The International Terrorist Network (1977); Yonah Alexander, David Carlton and Paul Wilkinson, Terrorism: Theory and Practice; Christopher Dobson and Ronald Payne, The Weapons of Terror: International Terrorism at Work; Brian Michael Jenkins, The Terrorist Mindset and Terrorist Decisionmaking (1979)
  25. ^ Faimau, Gabriel (July 26, 2013). Socio-Cultural Construction of Recognition: The Discursive Representation of Islam and Muslims in the British Christian News Media. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-4438-5104-6.
  26. ^ Campo, Juan Eduardo (January 1, 2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing. p. xxii. ISBN 978-1-4381-2696-8.
  27. ^ Williamson, Myra (2009). Terrorism, war and international law: the legality of the use of force against Really aj 2001. Ashgate Publishing. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-7546-7403-0.
  28. ^ Schmid, Alex P. (2011). “The Definition of Terrorism”The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research. Routledge. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-203-82873-1.
  29. ^ Frampton, Martyn (2021), English, Richard (ed.), “History and the Definition of Terrorism”The Cambridge History of Terrorism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 31–57, ISBN 978-1-108-66262-8, retrieved May 11, 2021
  30. ^ Hoffman (1998), p. 23, See the 1 Nov 1998 review by Raymond Bonner in The New York Times of Inside Terrorism
  31. Jump up to:a b “Battling Aerial Terrorism and Compensating the Victims”Naval Law Review39: 242–243. 1990.
  32. ^ International and Transnational Criminal Law. Aspen Publishing. 2010. p. 617.
  33. ^ 18 U.S.C. §§ 113B2331
  34. ^ Diaz-Paniagua (2008), Negotiating terrorism: The negotiation dynamics of four UN counter-terrorism treaties, 1997–2005, p. 47.
  35. ^ Hoffman 1998, p. 32.
  36. ^ “Radicalisation, De-Radicalisation, Counter-Radicalisation: A Conceptual Discussion and Literature Review”. The International Centre for Counter-Terrorism – The Hague (ICCT). March 27, 2013. Retrieved September 6, 2016.
  37. ^ Hoffman 2006, p. 34.
  38. ^ Siegel, Larry (January 2, 2008). Criminology. Cengage Learning. ISBN 9780495391029. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
  39. ^ Schmid, Alex P. (October 7, 2020). Brunton, Gillian; Wilson, Tim (eds.). Issue title: Terrorism: Its Past, Present & Future Study – A Special Issue to Commemorate CSTPV at 25. “Discussion 1 – Revisiting the wicked problem of defining terrorism”Contemporary Voices: St Andrews Journal of International Relations1 (1). doi:10.15664/jtr.1601ISSN 2516-3159.  Text may have been copied from this source, which is available under a Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) licence. (Per this page.
  40. Jump up to:a b Arie W. Kruglanski and Shira Fishman Current Directions in Psychological Science Vol. 15, No. 1 (Feb. 2006), pp. 45–48
  41. Jump up to:a b c Dietze & Verhoeven 2022, p. 128.
  42. ^ Clark, David S. (2007). Encyclopedia of Law and Society. United Kingdom: Sage. p. 1474. Before the advent of dynamite and automatic weapons, groups had to kill on a one-to-one basis. It took one terrorist (or soldier) to kill one enemy or perhaps a handful of enemies, except in unusual cases, such as the failed 1605 Gunpowder Plot of Guy Fawkes in England. The weapons of choice for the earlier terrorists were the dagger, the noose, the sword and the poison elixir. This changed with the hand-thrown bomb and the pistol, introduced in the nineteenth century, and the machine gun and plastic explosives, common in the twentieth century.
  43. ^ Rapoport, D. (1984) “Fear and Trembling” in Mahan, S., Griset, P. L. (2012). Terrorism in Perspective. United Kingdom: Sage Publications:”Furthermore, the three cases illustrate a kind of terror nowhere adequately analyzed in our theoretical literature, terror designated here as holy or sacred. Before the nineteenth century, religion provided the only acceptable justifications for terror, and the differences between sacred and modern expressions (differences of nature, not scale) raise questions about the appropriateness of contemporary definitions. The holy terrorist believes that only a transcendental purpose which fulfills the meaning of the universe can justify terror, and that the deity reveals at some early moment in both time and end the means and may even participate in the process as well. We see terrorists as free to seek different political ends in this world by whatever means of terror they consider most appropriate.”
  44. ^ Laqueur 2001: “The misunderstandings about the nature of terrorism in the 1970s were founded, in part, on political reasons. At the time, terrorism was predominantly left wing in inspiration and it did not come as a surprise that commentators belonging to the same political persuasion would produce theoretical explanations which were, at the very least, not unsympathetic as far as terrorists were concerned. It was argued in these circles that terrorism always occurred where there was oppression, social or national, that the terrorists had genuine, legitimate grievances—hence the conclusion that once the grievances were eradicated, terrorism would also disappear. Terrorism, in brief, was seen as a revolutionary phenomenon; it was carried out by poor and desperate human beings and had, therefore, to be confronted with sympathetic understanding.”
  45. ^ Dietze & Verhoeven 2022, p. 129.
  46. ^ “Terrorism: From the Fenians to Al Qaeda”. Archived from the original on December 3, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
  47. ^ Irish Freedom, by Richard English Publisher: Pan Books (2007), ISBN 0-330-42759-8 p. 179
  48. ^ Irish Freedom, by Richard English Publisher: Pan Books (November 2, 2007), ISBN 0-330-42759-8 p. 180
  49. ^ Whelehan, Niall (2012). The Dynamiters: Irish Nationalism and Political Violence in the Wider World 1867–1900. Cambridge.
  50. ^ “‘One skilled scientist is worth an army’ – The Fenian Dynamite campaign 1881-85”The Irish Story. February 13, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
  51. ^ Burgess, Mark (July 2, 2003). “A Brief History of Terrorism”Center for Defense Information. Archived from the original on May 11, 2012.
  52. ^ Hoffman 1998, p. 5.
  53. ^ A History of Terrorism, by Walter Laqueur, Transaction Publishers, 2000, ISBN 0-7658-0799-8, p. 92 [1]
  54. ^ Adam Roberts (September 18, 2014). “The Changing Faces of Terrorism”BBC – History. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
  55. ^ Primoratz 2004, p. xv.
  56. ^ de Waal, Thomas. “Bin Laden and the Theater of Terrorism”Carnegie Europe. Retrieved October 30, 2023.
  57. ^ Juergensmeyer, Mark (2000). Terror in the Mind of God. University of California Press. pp. 125–135ISBN 9780520223011.
  58. ^ Laqueur 2001, p. xi.
  59. ^ Hoffman 2006, p. 64.
  60. ^ The Media and Terrorism: A Reassessment Paul WilkinsonTerrorism and Political Violence, Vol. 9, No. 2 (Summer 1997), pp. 51–64 Published by Frank Cass, London.
  61. ^ Bibi van Ginkel (March 31, 2015). “Responding to Cyber Jihad: Towards an Effective Counter Narrative”. The International Centre for Counter-Terrorism – The Hague (ICCT). Retrieved September 7, 2016.
  62. ^ “Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee”. Retrieved June 17, 2009.
  63. ^ Pastor, James F. (2009). Terrorism & Public Safety Policing: Implications of the Obama Presidency. New York: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-4398-1580-9.
  64. ^ William Gibson’s blog Archived November 18, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, October 31, 2004. Retrieved April 26, 2007.
  65. ^ “Speech to American Bar Association | Margaret Thatcher Foundation”www.margaretthatcher.org. Retrieved October 5, 2015.
  66. ^ Washington Post: “Abimael Guzman, leader of Peru’s Shining Path terrorist group, dies at 86” Whashington Post website: “Abimael Guzmán, the mastermind of the Shining Path terrorist organization in Peru, a brutal Maoist movement that nearly toppled the country’s government in the 1980s and early 1990s, leaving thousands of people dead, died Sept. 11 in a hospital at a military prison outside Lima. He was 86.”
  67. ^ Feline Freier, Luisa; Castillo Jara, Soledad (January 13, 2021). “”Terruqueo” and Peru’s Fear of the Left”Americas Quarterly. Retrieved November 18, 2021.
  68. ^ “Qué es el “terruqueo” en Perú y cómo influye en la disputa presidencial entre Fujimori y Castillo”BBC News (in Spanish). Retrieved November 18, 2021.
  69. ^ Asensio, Raúl; Camacho, Gabriela; González, Natalia; Grompone, Romeo; Pajuelo Teves, Ramón; Peña Jimenez, Omayra; Moscoso, Macarena; Vásquez, Yerel; Sosa Villagarcia, Paolo (August 2021). El Profe: Cómo Pedro Castillo se convirtió en presidente del Perú y qué pasará a continuación (in Spanish) (1 ed.). Lima, PeruInstitute of Peruvian Studies. pp. 13–24. ISBN 978-612-326-084-2. Retrieved November 17, 2021.
  70. Jump up to:a b Reynolds, Paul; quoting David Hannay; Former UK ambassador (September 14, 2005). “UN staggers on road to reform”BBC News. Retrieved January 11, 2010This would end the argument that one man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter …
  71. ^ Pedahzur, Ami (2006). Root Causes of Suicide Terrorism: The Globalization of Martyrdom. United Kingdom: Routledge.
  72. ^ Hoffman 1998, p. 21.
  73. Jump up to:a b Rodin, David (2006). “Terrorism”. In E. Craig (Ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. London: Routledge.
  74. ^ Steinfels, Peter (March 1, 2003). “Beliefs; The just-war tradition, its last-resort criterion and the debate on an invasion of Iraq”The New York Times. Retrieved January 11, 2010For those like Professor Walzer who value the just-war tradition as a disciplined way to think about the morality of war …
  75. ^ Hoffman 1998, p. 31.
  76. ^ Bonner, Raymond (November 1, 1998). “Getting Attention: A scholar’s historical and political survey of terrorism finds that it works”. Books. The New York Times. Retrieved January 11, 2010Inside Terrorism falls into the category of ‘must read,’ at least for anyone who wants to understand how we can respond to international acts of terror.
  77. ^ Malayan People’s Anti-Japanese Army Archived March 24, 2007, at the Wayback Machine Britannica Concise.
  78. ^ Chris Clark “Malayan Emergency, 16 June 1948”. Archived from the original on June 8, 2007., June 16, 2003.
  79. ^ Ronald Reagan, speech to National Conservative Political Action Conference Archived August 20, 2006, at the Wayback Machine March 8, 1985. On the Spartacus Educational web site.
  80. ^ “President Meets with Afghan Interim Authority Chairman”. Georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov. January 29, 2002. Retrieved August 10, 2009.
  81. ^ President Discusses Progress in War on Terrorism to National Guard White House web site February 9, 2006.
  82. ^ “An unbiased look at terrorism in Afghanistan [in 2009] reveals that many of these ‘terrorists’ individuals or groups were once ‘freedom fighters’ struggling against the Soviets during the 1980s.” (Chouvy, Pierre-Arnaud (2009). Opium: Uncovering the Politics of the Poppy (illustrated, reprint ed.). Harvard University Press. p. 119ISBN 978-0-674-05134-8.)
  83. ^ Sudha Ramachandran Death behind the wheel in Iraq Asian Times, November 12, 2004, “Insurgent groups that use suicide attacks therefore do not like their attacks to be described as suicide terrorism. They prefer to use terms like “martyrdom …”
  84. ^ Alex Perry How Much to Tip the Terrorist? Time, September 26, 2005. “The Tamil Tigers would dispute that tag, of course. Like other guerrillas and suicide bombers, they prefer the term “freedom fighters”.
  85. ^ Terrorism: concepts, causes, and conflict resolution George Mason University Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution, Printed by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Fort Belvoir, Virginia, January 2003.
  86. ^ Quinney, Nigel; Coyne, A. Heather (2011). Peacemaker’s Toolkit Talking to Groups that Use Terrorism (PDF). United States Institute of Peace. ISBN 978-1-60127-072-6. Retrieved December 11, 2016.
  87. ^ Theodore P. Seto The Morality of Terrorism Includes a list in The Times published on July 23, 1946, which were described as Jewish terrorist actions, including those launched by Irgun, of which Begin was a leading member.
  88. ^ BBC News: Profiles: Menachem Begin BBC website “Under Begin’s command, the underground terrorist group Irgun carried out numerous acts of violence.”
  89. ^ Lord Desai Hansard, House of Lords Archived March 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine September 3, 1998 : Column 72, “However, Jomo Kenyatta, Nelson Mandela and Menachem Begin – to give just three examples – were all denounced as terrorists but all proved to be successful political leaders of their countries and good friends of the United Kingdom.”
  90. ^ BBC NEWS:World: Americas: UN reforms receive mixed response BBC website “Of all groups active in recent times, the ANC perhaps represents best the traditional dichotomous view of armed struggle. Once regarded by western governments as a terrorist group, it now forms the legitimate, elected government of South Africa, with Nelson Mandela one of the world’s genuinely iconic figures.”
  91. ^ Beckford, Martin (November 30, 2010). “Hunt WikiLeaks founder like al-Qaeda and Taliban Leaders”The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on January 11, 2022. Retrieved January 7, 2011.
  92. ^ MacAskill, Ewen (December 19, 2010). “Julian Assange like a hi-tech terrorist”The Guardian. London. Retrieved January 7, 2011.
  93. ^ “Guardian and Observer style guide: T”The Guardian. London. December 19, 2008. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
  94. ^ “BBC Editorial Guidelines on Language when Reporting Terrorism”. BBC. Archived from the original on December 30, 2011. Retrieved January 9, 2011.
  95. ^ “Nashville Bombing Revives Debate Over Which Acts Get Terrorism Label”NPR.
  96. ^ “TE-SAT 2011 EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report” (PDF)Europol. 2011. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
  97. ^ “TE-SAT 2010 Terrorism Situation and Trend Report” (PDF)Europol. 2010. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
  98. ^ “TE-SAT 2009 Terrorism Situation and Trend Report” (PDF)Europol. 2009. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
  99. ^ “Disorders and Terrorism” (PDF)National Advisory Committee on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals. 1976. pp. 3–6.
  100. ^ “Why do terrorists claim credit for some attacks but not others?”. The Economist. February 1, 2019. Retrieved May 9, 2021.
  101. ^ “TERRORISM”. Earth Dashboard. Retrieved July 13, 2016.
  102. ^ Purpura, Philip P. (2007). Terrorism and homeland security: an introduction with applications. Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 16–19. ISBN 978-0-7506-7843-8.
  103. ^ Hudson, Rex A. Who Becomes a Terrorist and Why: The 1999 Government Report on Profiling Terrorists, Federal Research Division, The Lyons Press, 2002.
  104. ^ Barry Scheider, Jim Davis, Avoiding the abyss: progress, shortfalls and the way ahead in combatting the WMD threat, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2009 p. 60.
  105. ^ Chalk 2013, Introduction.
  106. Jump up to:a b The Psychology Of Terrorism, audio interview summarizing Special Report: The Psychology of Terrorism
  107. ^ Madigan, Michael L. (December 6, 2017). Handbook of Emergency Management Concepts: A Step-by-Step Approach. CRC Press. ISBN 9781351337472.
  108. ^ Janeczko, Matthew (June 19, 2014). “‘Faced with death, even a mouse bites’: Social and religious motivations behind terrorism in Chechnya”: 428–456. {{cite journal}}Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  109. ^ Gill, Paul; Horgan, John; Deckert, Paige (March 1, 2014). “Bombing Alone: Tracing the Motivations and Antecedent Behaviors of Lone-Actor Terrorists”Journal of Forensic Sciences59 (2): 425–435. doi:10.1111/1556-4029.12312PMC 4217375PMID 24313297.
  110. ^ Merari, Ariel (2006). “Psychological Aspects of Suicide Terrorism,” in Bruce Bongar et al., Psychology of Terrorism. New York: Oxford University Press.
  111. ^ Atran, Scott (2004). “Mishandling Suicide Terrorism”. The Washington Quarterly27 (3): 67–90. doi:10.1162/016366004323090269S2CID 155714216.
  112. Jump up to:a b Abrahms, Max (March 2008). “What Terrorists Really Want: Terrorist Motives and Counterterrorism Strategy” (PDF 1933 KB)International Security32 (4): 86–89. doi:10.1162/isec.2008.32.4.78ISSN 0162-2889S2CID 57561190. Retrieved November 4, 2008.
  113. ^ Mousseau, Michael (2002). “Market Civilization and its Clash with Terror”International Security27 (3): 5–29. doi:10.1162/01622880260553615S2CID 26190384.
  114. ^ “Many terrorists’ first victims are their wives – but we’re not allowed to talk about that”. June 7, 2017. New Statesman
  115. ^ “Freedom squelches terrorist violence: Harvard Gazette Archives”. Archived from the original on September 19, 2015.
  116. ^ “Freedom squelches terrorist violence: Harvard Gazette Archives” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 21, 2008. Retrieved December 28, 2008.
  117. ^ “Poverty, Political Freedom, and the Roots of Terrorism” (PDF). 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 21, 2008. Retrieved December 28, 2008.
  118. ^ “Unemployment, Inequality and Terrorism: Another Look at the Relationship between Economics and Terrorism” (PDF). 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 14, 2007. Retrieved December 28, 2008.
  119. ^ “Basque Terrorist Group Marks 50th Anniversary with New Attacks”Time. July 31, 2009. Archived from the original on August 4, 2009. Retrieved January 11, 2010Europe’s longest-enduring terrorist group. This week, ETA (the initials stand for Basque Homeland and Freedom in Euskera, the Basque language)
  120. ^ Timothy SnyderA fascist hero in democratic Kiev. New York Review of Books. February 24, 2010
  121. ^ Romero, Simon (March 18, 2009). “Shining Path”The New York Times. Retrieved January 11, 2010The Shining Path, a faction of Peruvian militants, has resurfaced in the remote corners of the Andes. The war against the group, which took nearly 70,000 lives, supposedly ended in 2000. … In the 1980s, the rebels were infamous for atrocities like planting bombs on donkeys in crowded markets, assassinations and other terrorist tactics.
  122. ^ “1983: Car bomb in South Africa kills 16”. BBC. May 20, 2005. Retrieved January 11, 2010The outlawed anti-apartheid group the African National Congress has been blamed for the attack … He said the explosion was the “biggest and ugliest” terrorist incident since anti-government violence began in South Africa 20 years ago.
  123. ^ Young, Rick (May 16, 2007). “PBS Frontline: ‘Spying on the Home Front'”. PBS: Frontline. Retrieved January 11, 2010… we and Frontline felt that it was important to look more comprehensively at the post-9/11 shift to prevention and the dilemma we all now face in balancing security and privacy.
  124. ^ Yager, Jordy (July 25, 2010). “Former intel chief: Homegrown terrorism is a devil of a problem”thehill.com.
  125. ^ shabad, goldie and francisco jose llera ramo. “Political Violence in a Democratic State”, Terrorism in Context. Ed. Martha Crenshaw. University Park: Pennsylvania State University, 1995. p. 467.
  126. Jump up to:a b Arnett, George (November 19, 2014). “Religious extremism main cause of terrorism, according to report”The Guardian. Retrieved March 22, 2017.
  127. Jump up to:a b c Kushner, Harvey W. (2003). Encyclopedia of terrorism. Thousand Oaks (Calif.) London: SAGE publications. pp. xxiv. ISBN 978-0-7619-2408-1.
  128. ^ Breedon, Jennifer R. (2015–2016). “Why the Combination of Universal Jurisdiction and Polical Lawfare Will Destroy the Sacred Sovereignty of States”Journal of Global Justice and Public Policy2: 389. The Hamas’ Charter not only calls for the militant, perhaps genocidal, liberation of Palestine (e.g., “raise the banner of Allah over every inch of Palestine”), but also demonstrates anti-Semitic, murderous intent.
  129. ^ Bayefsky, Anne F.; Blank, Laurie R. (March 22, 2018). Incitement to Terrorism. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-35982-6The governing charter of Hamas, “The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement,” openly dedicates Hamas to genocide against the Jewish people.
  130. ^ Breedon, Jennifer R. (2015–2016). “Why the Combination of Universal Jurisdiction and Polical Lawfare Will Destroy the Sacred Sovereignty of States”Journal of Global Justice and Public Policy2: 389. The Hamas’ Charter not only calls for the militant, perhaps genocidal, liberation of Palestine (e.g., “raise the banner of Allah over every inch of Palestine”), but also demonstrates anti-Semitic, murderous intent.
  131. ^ Tsesis, Alexander (2014–2015). “Antisemitism and Hate Speech Studies”Rutgers Journal of Law and Religion16: 352. For Jews, the Holocaust remains a real concern in an age when Hamas, a Palestinian terrorist organization, continues to advocate genocide in its core Charter.
  132. ^ Litvak, Meir (July 15, 2010). “”Martyrdom is Life”: Jihad and Martyrdom in the Ideology of Hamas”Studies in Conflict & Terrorism33 (8): 716–734. doi:10.1080/1057610X.2010.494170ISSN 1057-610X.
  133. ^ “Rights group says Hamas rockets at Israel a clear war crime”AP News. August 12, 2021. Retrieved December 7, 2023.
  134. ^ Global Terrorism Index 2016 (PDF). Institute for Economics and Peace. 2016. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 17, 2019. Retrieved December 14, 2016.
  135. ^ Siddiqui, Mona (August 23, 2014). “Isis: a contrived ideology justifying barbarism and sexual control”The Guardian. Archived from the original on August 24, 2014. Retrieved January 7, 2015.
  136. ^ Pakistan: A failed state or a clever gambler?“. BBC News. May 7, 2011.
  137. ^ Agence France Press “Two bomb blasts kill 27 in northwest Pakistan”.
  138. ^ “Fatwa issued against suicide bombings, targeted killings and terrorism”. Lahore. July 2, 2013.
  139. ^ Lenz, Ryan (February 2015). Age of the Wolf (PDF) (Report). Southern Poverty Law Center. p. 4. Retrieved March 22, 2017A large number of independent studies have agreed that since the 9/11 mass murder, more people have been killed in America by non-Islamic domestic terrorists than jihadists.
  140. Jump up to:a b c d e f [2]“. Anti-Defamation League 2017.
  141. ^ “Bigotry Behind Bars: Racist Groups In U.S. Prisons”. Archived from the original on July 29, 2015.
  142. ^ Perlmutter, Philip (1999). Legacy of Hate: A Short History of Ethnic, Religious, and Racial Prejudice in America. M. E. Sharpe. p. 170ISBN 978-0-7656-0406-4Kenneth T. Jackson, in his The Ku Klux Klan in the City 1915–1930, reminds us that ‘virtually every’ Protestant denomination denounced the KKK, but that most KKK members were not ‘innately depraved or anxious to subvert American institutions’, but rather believed their membership in keeping with ‘one-hundred percent Americanism’ and Christian morality.
  143. ^ Martin Gilbert. Churchill and the Jew Quotings. p. 270.
  144. ^ Pope Brewer, Sam. Irgun Bomb Kills 11 Arabs, 2 BritonsNew York Times. December 30, 1947.
  145. ^ Parker, Ned; Farrell, Stephen (July 20, 2006). “British anger at terror celebration”The Times. London. Retrieved May 5, 2010.
  146. ^ Calder Walton (2008). “British Intelligence and the Mandate of Palestine: Threats to British national security immediately after the Second World War”. Intelligence and National Security23 (4): 435–462. doi:10.1080/02684520802293049S2CID 154775965.
  147. ^ Heller, J. (1995). The Stern Gang. Frank Cass. ISBN 0-7146-4558-3
  148. ^ Cleveland, William L. A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2004. Print. p. 243
  149. ^ Spaaij 2012, p. 68.
  150. ^ Shah, S. A. A. (2005). Religious terrorism in other faiths. Strategic Studies25(2), 126-141.
  151. ^ Sageman, Mark (2004). “Understanding Terror Networks”International Journal of Emergency Mental Health. Philadelphia: U. of Pennsylvania Press. 7 (1): 166–167ISBN 978-0-8122-3808-2PMID 15869076.
  152. ^ Edwin Bakker; Jeanine de Roy van Zuijdewijn (February 29, 2016). “Personal Characteristics of Lone-Actor Terrorists”. Archived from the original on September 15, 2016. Retrieved September 6, 2016.
  153. ^ Levitt, Steven D.; Dubner, Stephen J. (2009). Superfreakonomics: global cooling, patriotic prostitutes, and why suicide bombers should buy life insurance. William Morrow. pp. 62, 231ISBN 978-0-06-088957-9. citing Alan B. Krueger, What Makes a Terrorist (Princeton University Press 2007); Claude Berrebi, “Evidence About the Link Between Education, Poverty, and Terrorism among Palestinians”, Princeton University Industrial Relations Section Working paper, 2003 and Krueger and Jita Maleckova, “Education, Poverty and Terrorism: Is There a Causal Connection?” Journal of Economic Perspectives 17 no. 4 Fall 2003 / 63.
  154. ^ Coughlan, Sean (August 21, 2006). “Fear of the unknown”BBC News. Retrieved January 11, 2010A passenger on the flight, Heath Schofield, explained the suspicions: “It was a return holiday flight, full of people in flip-flops and shorts. There were just two people in the whole crowd who looked like they didn’t belong there.”
  155. Jump up to:a b Library of Congress – Federal Research Division The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism.
  156. ^ “Background Report: ETA Ceasefires by the Numbers” (PDF). The National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START). Retrieved November 12, 2021.
  157. ^ “State Sponsored Terrorism”Trac. trackingterrorism.org. Retrieved May 28, 2017.
  158. ^ Endgame: Resistance, by Derrick Jensen, Seven Stories Press, 2006, ISBN 1-58322-730-X, p. ix.
  159. ^ “Pds Sso” (PDF). Eprints.unimelb.edu.au. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 12, 2008. Retrieved August 10, 2009.
  160. ^ “Addressing Security Council, Secretary-General Calls on Counter-Terrorism Committee To Develop Long-Term Strategy To Defeat Terror”. United Nations. Retrieved August 10, 2009.
  161. ^ Lind, Michael (May 2, 2005). “The Legal Debate is Over: Terrorism is a War Crime | The New America Foundation”. Newamerica.net. Archived from the original on February 21, 2009. Retrieved August 10, 2009.
  162. ^ “Press conference with Kofi Annan & FM Kamal Kharrazi”. United Nations. January 26, 2002. Retrieved August 10, 2009.
  163. ^ Stohl, Michael (April 1, 1984). “The Superpowers and International Terror”. International Studies Association, Atlanta.
  164. ^ Stohl, Michael (1988). “Terrible beyond Endurance? The Foreign Policy of State Terrorism”. International Studies Association, Atlanta.
  165. ^ Stohl, Michael (1984). “The State as Terrorist: The Dynamics of Governmental Violence and Repression”. International Studies Association, Atlanta. p. 49.
  166. ^ “The ‘No Rent’ Manifesto.; Text of the Document Issued by the Land League”The New York Times. August 2, 2009. Retrieved August 10, 2009.
  167. ^ Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartošek, Jean-Louis Panné, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, Stéphane CourtoisThe Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard University Press, 1999, hardcover, 858 pp., ISBN 0-674-07608-7
  168. ^ Kisangani, E.; Nafziger, E. Wayne (2007). “The Political Economy of State Terror”. Defence and Peace Economics18 (5): 405–414. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.579.1472doi:10.1080/10242690701455433S2CID 155020309.
  169. ^ Death by Government by R.J. Rummel New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1994. Online links: [3] [4] [5]
  170. ^ No Lessons Learned from the Holocaust?, Barbara Harff, 2003. Archived October 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  171. ^ Blakeley, Ruth (2009). State Terrorism and Neoliberalism: The North in the South. Routledge. pp. 420–2388ISBN 978-0-415-68617-4.
  172. ^ Valentino, Benjamin A. (2005). Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the 20th Century. Cornell University Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-8014-7273-2.
  173. ^ Bevins, Vincent (2020). The Jakarta Method: Washington’s Anticommunist Crusade and the Mass Murder Program that Shaped Our WorldPublicAffairs. p. 238. ISBN 978-1541742406.
  174. ^ Simpson, Bradley (2010). Economists with Guns: Authoritarian Development and U.S.–Indonesian Relations, 1960–1968. Stanford University Press. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-8047-7182-5Washington did everything in its power to encourage and facilitate the army-led massacre of alleged PKI members, and U.S. officials worried only that the killing of the party’s unarmed supporters might not go far enough, permitting Sukarno to return to power and frustrate the [Johnson] Administration’s emerging plans for a post-Sukarno Indonesia. This was efficacious terror, an essential building block of the neoliberal policies that the West would attempt to impose on Indonesia after Sukarno’s ouster
  175. ^ Mark Aarons (2007). “Justice Betrayed: Post-1945 Responses to Genocide.” In David A. Blumenthal and Timothy L.H. McCormack (eds). The Legacy of Nuremberg: Civilising Influence or Institutionalised Vengeance? (International Humanitarian Law). Archived January 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine Martinus Nijhoff PublishersISBN 90-04-15691-7 pp. 71 & 80–81
  176. ^ McSherry, J. Patrice (2011). “Chapter 5: “Industrial repression” and Operation Condor in Latin America”. In Esparza, Marcia; Huttenbach, Henry R.; Feierstein, Daniel (eds.). State Violence and Genocide in Latin America: The Cold War Years (Critical Terrorism Studies). Routledge. p. 107ISBN 978-0-415-66457-8.
  177. ^ Sönmez, S.F.; Apostolopoulos, Y.; Tarlow, P. (1999). “Tourism in crisis: Managing the effects of terrorism” (PDF)Journal of Travel Research38 (1): 13–18. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.465.286doi:10.1177/004728759903800104S2CID 154984322.
  178. ^ Tarlow, P.E. (2006). “Tourism and Terrorism”. In Wilks J, Pendergast D & Leggat P. (Eds) Tourism in turbulent times: Towards safe experiences for visitors (Advances in Tourism Research), Elsevier, Oxford, pp. 80–82.
  179. ^ Bianchi, R (2006). “Tourism and the globalisation of fear: Analysing the politics of risk and (in) security in global travel”. Tourism and Hospitality Research7 (1): 64–74. doi:10.1057/palgrave.thr.6050028S2CID 154888544.
  180. ^ Floyd, M. et al. (2003). “The Effects of Risk Perception on Intention to Travel in the Aftermath of September 11, 2001”. In Safety and Security in Tourism: relationships, Management and Marketing, (Eds) Hall, M. Timothy, D. y Duval, T. New York: Haworth Hospitality Press
  181. ^ Brun, W.; Wolff, K.; Larsen, S. (2011). “Tourist worries after terrorist attacks: Report from a field experiment”. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism11 (3): 387–394. doi:10.1080/15022250.2011.593365S2CID 143842574.
  182. Jump up to:a b c d Detection of Terrorist Financing Archived August 14, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, U.S. National Credit Union Administration (NCUA), 2002.
  183. ^ Lott, Jeremy (October 6, 2004). “Tripped Up”Reason Magazine. Retrieved January 11, 2010and before the Soviet Union fell, terrorist organizations were funding themselves through subsidies from Communist governments
  184. Jump up to:a b “Iran’s proxies in the Middle East remain a powerful force”The EconomistISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved December 19, 2023.
  185. ^ “What to know about Iran’s role in the Israel-Hamas war”Axios. October 20, 2023.
  186. ^ “Explainer: What you need to know about Hezbollah, the group backing Hamas against Israel”Reuters. October 17, 2023.
  187. ^ “What Is Hamas?”Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved December 19, 2023.
  188. ^ Warrick, Joby; Nakashima, Ellen; Harris, Shane; Mekhennet, Souad (October 10, 2023). “Hamas received weapons and training from Iran, officials say”Washington PostISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved December 19, 2023.
  189. ^ “Aims and activities of the Stern Group in Palestine”. Research and Analysis Branch2717 (R & N). December 1, 1944.
  190. ^ Gerben Jan Gerbrandy claiming that terrorist networks hunt wildlife for funding themselves Archived February 22, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  191. ^ Syria’s top Islamist and jihadist groups“. France 24.
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  193. ^ Select Committee on Northern Ireland Affairs – Part One: The continuing threat from paramilitary organisationsUK Parliament (Report). June 26, 2002.
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  198. ^ Suicide bombings are the most effective terrorist act in this regard. See the following works:

    Cited in Richardson, Louise (2006). What Terrorists Want: Understanding the Terrorist Threat. London: John Murray. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-7195-6306-5.

  199. ^ Kurtulus, Ersun N. “Terrorism and fear: do terrorists really want to scare?.” Critical Studies on Terrorism 10, no. 3 (2017): 501–522.
  200. ^ “Hackers warn high street chains”BBC News. April 25, 2008. Retrieved January 11, 2010That’s the beauty of asymmetric warfare. You don’t need a lot of money, or an army of people.
  201. ^ Harari, Yuval Noah. Homo Deus: A brief history of tomorrow. Random House, 2016, pp.103–106
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  203. ^ Hoffman, Bruce. “The contrasting ethical foundations of terrorism in the 1980s.” Terrorism and Political Violence 1, no. 3 (1989): 361–377, p.8
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  205. ^ Freedman, Benjamin (November 2010). “Terrorism Research Centres: 100 Institutes, Programs and Organisations in the Field of Terrorism, Counter-Terrorism, Radicalisation and Asymmetric Warfare Studies” (PDF)Perspectives on Terrorism4 (5): 48–56. JSTOR 26298483.
  206. ^ “70 countries sign Counter-Terrorism Code initiated by Kazakhstan”inform.kz. November 8, 2018.
  207. ^ Priest, Dana; Arkin, William (July 19, 2010). “A hidden world, growing beyond control”The Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 5, 2018. Retrieved July 19, 2010.
  208. Jump up to:a b Ankony, Robert C., “A New Strategy for America’s War on Terrorism”, Patrolling magazine, 75th Ranger Regiment Association, Winter 2011, 56–57.
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  210. ^ The researchers found 648 terrorist groups active between 1968 and 2006. Of those, 136 splintered and 244 were still active in 2006 (Jones and Libicki, 2008, p. 19)
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References

  • Hoffman, Bruce (1988). Inside Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press.[verification needed]
  • Hoffman, Bruce (1998). “Inside Terrorism”. Columbia University Press. p. 32ISBN 0-231-11468-0. Retrieved January 11, 2010.
  • Hoffman, Bruce (2006). Inside Terrorism (2nd ed.). Columbia University Press.
  • Spaaij, Ramon (2012). Understanding Lone Wolf Terrorism: Global Patterns, Motivations and Prevention.
  • Perspectives on Terrorism’s Bibliography: Root Causes of Terrorism. 2017. Archived October 22, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
  • Dietze, Carola; Verhoeven, Claudia (2022). The Oxford Handbook of the History of Terrorism. Oxford University Press.
  • Wilkinson, Paul (1977). Terrorism and the Liberal State. Macmillan.
  • Laqueur, Walter (2001). A History of Terrorism. Taylor & Francis.
  • Chalk, Peter (2013). Encyclopedia of Terrorism. ABC-CLIO.
  • Primoratz, Igor (2004). Terrorism: The Philosophical Issues. Palgrave Macmillan.

Further reading

United Kingdom

  • Blackbourn, Jessie. “Counter-Terrorism and Civil Liberties: The United Kingdom Experience, 1968-2008.” Journal of the Institute of Justice and International Studies 8 (2008): 63+
  • Bonner, David. “United Kingdom: the United Kingdom response to terrorism.” Terrorism and Political Violence 4.4 (1992): 171–205. online
  • Chin, Warren. Britain and the war on terror: Policy, strategy and operations (Routledge, 2016).
  • Clutterbuck, Lindsay. “Countering Irish Republican terrorism in Britain: Its origin as a police function.” Terrorism and Political Violence 18.1 (2006) pp: 95–118.
  • Greer, Steven. “Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism in the UK: From Northern Irish Troubles to Global Islamist Jihad.” in Counter-Terrorism, Constitutionalism and Miscarriages of Justice (Hart Publishing, 2018) pp. 45–62.
  • Hamilton, Claire. “Counter-Terrorism in the UK.” in Contagion, Counter-Terrorism and Criminology (Palgrave Pivot, Cham, 2019) pp. 15–47.
  • Hewitt, Steve. “Great Britain: Terrorism and counter-terrorism since 1968.” in Routledge Handbook of Terrorism and Counterterrorism (Routledge, 2018) pp. 540–551.
  • Martínez-Peñas, Leandro, and Manuela Fernández-Rodríguez. “Evolution of British Law on Terrorism: From Ulster to Global Terrorism (1970–2010).” in Post 9/11 and the State of Permanent Legal Emergency (Springer, 2012) pp. 201–222.
  • O’Day, Alan. “Northern Ireland, Terrorism, and the British State.” in Terrorism: Theory and Practice (Routledge, 2019) pp. 121–135.
  • Sacopulos, Peter J. “Terrorism in Britain: Threat, reality, response.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 12.3 (1989): 153–165.
  • Staniforth, Andrew, and Fraser Sampson, eds. The Routledge companion to UK counter-terrorism (Routledge, 2012).
  • Sinclair, Georgina. “Confronting terrorism: British Experiences past and present.” Crime, Histoire & Sociétés/Crime, History & Societies 18.2 (2014): 117–122. online
  • Tinnes, Judith, ed. “Bibliography: Northern Ireland conflict (the troubles).” Perspectives on Terrorism 10.1 (2016): 83–110. online
  • Wilkinson, Paul, ed. Terrorism: British Perspectives (Dartmouth, 1993).